R1#show interface serial0
In normal conditions, we will see:
"Serial0 is up, line protocal is up."
The first part is the port's physical status, the second part is the port's logical status.
When we have problem at L1 and L2, we will see:
- "Serial0 is administratively down, line protocal is down." "administratively down" means the interface is shutdown by the adminstrator manually. Use "no shutdown" to open it.
- "Serial0 is down, line protocol is down". This time "down" means there are physical problem about the connection. The solution is to check the layer 1 devices such as port connection or wrong cable.
- "fa 0/0 is down, line protocol is down (err-disabled)". "err-disabled" means the port is shut down because of some security vialations. Check the port security for the trouble with command "show-port security interface".
- "Serial0 is up, line protocol is down". In this case, the L1 physical layer is fine, but L2 or higher level protocol is wrong. Most possibly, either the clock rate is not set on the DCE or the encapsulation type don't match on both ends of the link.
- "Serial0 is up, line protocol is down (looped)". In this case, the L1 physical layer is fine, but L2 or higher level protocol is wrong. "(looped)" means there is an active loopback on the router, on the line between the router and the local Frame Relay switch, or on the local Frame Relay switch itself. To fix it, save your running-config and issue the encapsulation hdlc, keepalive 10 and unique ip address commands on the main interface. Check this cisco document for details.
Another useful IOS "show" commands are
Swtich#show vlan brief
Don't forget the command "ping 188.8.131.52" and the extended ping command "ping".
Sometimes, we need run-time informations, we use debug commands.
R1#debug ip packet
R1#debug ip protocols
R1#debug ip rip
To add a time stamp to a debug or log message, use command "service timestamps".
If we want to see the output of our debugs during our session, use command "terminal monitor" in EXEC mode. All debug outputs and system error messages for the current terminal and session will be displayed.
Looking at log files can give us insight about during troubleshooting. To enable system messages to a local buffer use command "logging buffered [size]" in global configuration mode. The default size is 4096k and once this is full older messages will be overwritten with newer ones.
Don't forget the house-keeping after trouble-shooting.