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The TCP/IP Model


The TCP/IP model was created by the U.S. Department of Defencse (DoD), to create a network that could survive any conditions. Some of the layers in the TCP/IP model have the same names as layers in the OSI model. TCP/IP is a "protocal specific" model while OSI model is "protocal independent" model.

Application Layer: Include the OSI Application, Presentation and Session Layer, which responsible for representation, encoding, and dialog control.

Transport Layer: Similar to OSI, with transmission control protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocal (UDP) operating at this layer.

Internet Layer: Similar to OSI Network layer. IP resides at this layer.

Network Access Layer: Combines all functionality of physical and Data Link layers of OSI model. It is also called the host-to-network layer.

Normally, application programmers are concerned only with interfaces in the Application Layer and often also in the Transport Layer, while the layers below are services provided by the TCP/IP stack in the operating system. Microcontroller firmware in the network adapter typically handles Network Access issues, supported by driver software in the operational system. Non-programmable analog and digital electronics are normally in charge of the physical components in the Network Access Layer, typically using an ASIC chipset for each network interface or other physical standard.

For more detail, see this post

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